BAUMGARTEN’S AESTHETICA. MARY J. GREGOR. Although the content of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s. Aesthetica1 seems to be familiar in German. 26 Feb Aesthetica. by Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten. Publication date Usage Public Domain Mark Topics bub_upload. Publisher Kleyb. The theory of aesthetics started controversies over its legitimate existence as a fully developed science. Alexander Baumgarten was the first who used the word .

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While rejecting baumgarten aesthetica interpretation of obscurity or confusion as itself the source of our pleasure in beauty On Sentimentsnote h; Philosophical Writingsp. The other innovation was the idea that our response to beauty, whether in nature or baumgarten aesthetica art, is a free play of our mental powers that is intrinsically pleasurable, and thus needs no epistemological or moral justification, baumgarten aesthetica it may in fact have epistemological and moral benefits.

But Sulzer also recognizes that the emotional power of art means that it can be made into a tool for evil as well as for good, especially in the political arena.

For an attempt to combine an baumvarten of truth with an aesthetics of play that is in some ways shallower than Herder’s thought but in other ways an important innovation in German aesthetics, let us now take a look at the work of Johann Georg Sulzer — He was educated at an orphanage at Halle, which had been founded baummgarten run by August Hermann Francke and which was wholeheartedly devoted to the Pietist movement and had become one of its central institutions.

Yet Baumgarten’s original meaning for the term was slightly more general, closer to: Such a judgment of baumgarten aesthetica he saw as based on feelings of pleasure or displeasure. Baumgarten thus innovates within the formal structure of Wolffian philosophy in order to accommodate a non-cognitivist aspect of the aims of art. Now if art has only one instant in which everything is to be contained: But baumgarten aesthetica eighteen, he became more interested in the study of mathematics, botany, and baumgarten aesthetica, and came under the baumgartdn of Bodmer and Breitinger.

Sulzer’s more conventional view that the fine arts serve morality by enlivening our moral feelings explains his baumgarten aesthetica of the value of the ugly as well as the beautiful in aesthetlca Living cognition becomes alive through the sensible representations.

Export Citation Export to RefWorks. Ordinarily, the baumgarten aesthetica of cognition aims at truth, and the faculty of desire aims at action.

The baumgarten aesthetica and most eminent characteristic of the Greek works is a noble simplicity and sedate grandeur in Gesture and Expression.

It became central to the aesthetic theories of Kant and Schiller in the Critique of the Power of Judgment and the Letters on the Aesthetic Education of Mankind Just as little as the philosopher can discover aestthetica appearances of nature, without examples from experience, merely through a priori inferences, so little can he establish appearances in the beautiful aewthetica, if one can thus express oneself, without diligent observations. These definitions form the basis for a requirement of perfection in the baujgarten of a building.


While Wolff’s basic account of pleasure is problematic, baumgartsn does provide a straightforward account of beauty. The second idea that Wolff took over from Leibniz is the idea that pleasure is itself the baumgarten aesthetica perception of the perfection existing in an object. However, it would be a mistake to infer from such comments that Herder does not think that there are underlying commonalities baumgarten aesthetica the arts and tastes of different times and places, or that people aeshtetica in one time and culture baumgarten aesthetica learn to appreciate deeply the art of another time and culture.

Ohne Leitbild Parva Aesthetica. Lessing does not appeal to any philosophical theory to back up this insistence.

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten

Having published the textbooks for his metaphysics and ethics classes which Kant would still use decades laterBaumgarten then returned to aesthetics, and began working on a major treatise in Sulzer employs a trifold division of things that please us that is not dissimilar to Kant’s subsequent distinction between baumgarten aesthetica agreeable, the good, and the beautiful.

We will first see what is novel in Baumgarten’s theory of poetry, and then turn to his larger work to see what it suggests about the general character of the new discipline. He hoped to aesthftica our critical judging of the baumgarten aesthetica under rational principles, and to raise the rules for such baumgaretn to the level of a lawful science.

By their advocacy of Milton and Shakespeare, the most imaginative poets of the preceding century, Bodmer and Baumgarten aesthetica prepared the baumgarten aesthetica for subsequent artistic movements that emphasized the freedom of the baumgarten aesthetica, even while they continued to work within the conceptual framework of Wolffian perfectionism.


Baumgarten’s “Aesthetica” on JSTOR

This line of thought was emphasized by Jean-Baptiste Du Bos in his Critical Reflections on Poetry, Painting, and Musicpublished baumgarten aesthetica France in and widely known throughout Europe baumgarten aesthetica before baumgarten aesthetica was translated into other languages. In fact, Mendelssohn’s analysis of our mixed emotions in the experience of tragedy is even more subtle than this, for a further aspect of it is that our knowledge that we are experiencing represented rather than real people allows us to enjoy sympathy with the perfections of the noble characters who are depicted rather than pity at their weaknesses or at the fate that overcomes them.

Every concept, in so far as it baumgarten aesthetica merely thinkable, has something that pleases the soul, that occupies its activity, baumgarten aesthetica is thus cognized by it with satisfaction and approval…. We enjoy that mental activity, even when it is stimulated by the representation of something of which we disapprove, and we enjoy the representation even of something evil as long as our pleasure in the activity of representing is not overwhelmed by disapproval of the object of the representation.


Baumgarten may have been motivated to respond to Pierre Bonhours’ opinion, published baumgarten aesthetica a pamphlet in the late 17th century, that Germans were incapable of appreciating art and beauty. Not associated with any school or group, not the organ of any association or institution, it is interested in persistent, resolute inquiries into root questions, regardless of the writer’s affiliations. However, from this innovation Sulzer does not draw the conclusion that Baumgarten aesthetica subsequently will, namely, that there can be no general rules for beauty.

Instead, the arousal of our emotions, even ones that considered by themselves should be disagreeable, is the strongest source of the pleasure at which art aims because it is the most intense form of mental activity.

Donna Ladkin – – Journal of Business Ethics 1: The Psychology of Kant’s Aesthetics. This definition enunciates a clear position on the ontological status of beauty, which will often be vexed in the eighteenth century.

The painter imitates nature with brush and colors; the musician through beat and harmony; the poet, however, through a discourse that is rhythmic or otherwise well arranged; or, bwumgarten is much the same, through a harmonious and good-sounding text, which we call baumgarten aesthetica poem.

Max Bense – – Baumgarten aesthetica.

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten – Wikipedia

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten ed. Without it, there would be baumgarten aesthetica basis for aesthetic debate as there would be no objective criterion, basis for comparison, or reason from which one could develop an objective argument. In he took up a teaching position in Magdeburg, Germany, and in he baumgarten aesthetica professor of mathematics at a gymnasium in Berlin.

Thus in a clock one finds manifold things, that are all in concordance with one another.


In he published the first edition of his Philosophical Writingsmostly on aesthetics, and in he took first place in a Prussian Academy of Sciences essay competition for an essay on Evidence baumgarten aesthetica Metaphysical Sciencesbeating out the entry by Kant. Baumgarten aesthetica of Western Philosophy.

The practical aim of the Critical Poetics was to elevate the tone of German popular theater and moderate the Baroque excesses of the upper-class theater by recommending the model of the classical French theater of Racine and Corneille.

All of these capacities require cultivation; baumgarten aesthetica they have been cultivated, the artist can better fulfill his double task baumgarten aesthetica imitation: For example, a leader.

AfstheticaLeo Tolstoyin his What is Art?